Basic Science

Abdelzaher, L. A., Imaizumi, T., Suzuki, T., Tomita, K., Takashina, M., & Hattori, Y. (2016). Astaxanthin alleviates oxidative stress insults-related derangements in human vascular endothelial cells exposed to glucose fluctuations. Life Sci, 150, 24-31. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.087

Akyön, Y. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 8(7), 438-441. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0691.2002.00426.x

Ben-Dor, A., Steiner, M., Gheber, L., Danilenko, M., Dubi, N., Linnewiel, K., . . . Levy, J. (2005). Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system. Mol Cancer Ther, 4(1), 177-186. Retrieved from \\tks-az-fp-01\library\papers\BenDorA1.pdf

Bikadi, Z., Hazai, E., Zsila, F., & Lockwood, S. F. (2006). Molecular modeling of non-covalent binding of homochiral (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin to matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Bioorg Med Chem, 14(16), 5451-5458. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2006.04.047

Bolin, A. P., Macedo, R. C., Marin, D. P., Barros, M. P., & Otton, R. (2010). Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes. Cell Biol Toxicol, 26(5), 457-467. doi:10.1007/s10565-010-9156-4

Bustamante, A., Masson, L., Velasco, J., del Valle, J. M., & Robert, P. (2016). Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol. Food Chem, 190, 1013-1021. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.062

Camera, E., Mastrofrancesco, A., Fabbri, C., Daubrawa, F., Picardo, M., Sies, H., & Stahl, W. (2009). Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Exp Dermatol, 18(3), 222-231. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00790.x

Capelli, B., Bagchi D., Cysewski G. (2013). Synthetic astaxanthin is significantly inferior to algal-based astaxanthin as an antioxidant and may not be suitable as a human nutritional supplement. Nutrafoods (2013) 12:145-152

Chan, K. C., Mong, M. C., & Yin, M. C. (2009). Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in nerve growth factor differentiated PC12 cells. J Food Sci, 74(7), H225-231. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01274.x

Chang, C. H., Chen, C. Y., Chiou, J. Y., Peng, R. Y., & Peng, C. H. (2010). Astaxanthine secured apoptotic death of PC12 cells induced by beta-amyloid peptide 25-35: its molecular action targets. J Med Food, 13(3), 548-556. doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1291

Chang, C. S., Chang, C. L., & Lai, G. H. (2013). Reactive oxygen species scavenging activities in a chemiluminescence model and neuroprotection in rat pheochromocytoma cells by astaxanthin, beta-carotene, and canthaxanthin. Kaohsiung J Med Sci, 29(8), 412-421. doi:10.1016/j.kjms.2012.12.002

Chen, C. S., Wu, S. H., Wu, Y. Y., Fang, J. M., & Wu, T. H. (2007). Properties of astaxanthin/Ca2+ complex formation in the deceleration of cis/trans isomerization. Org Lett, 9(16), 2985-2988. doi:10.1021/ol0709533

Chen, W. P., Xiong, Y., Shi, Y. X., Hu, P. F., Bao, J. P., & Wu, L. D. (2014). Astaxanthin reduces matrix metalloproteinase expression in human chondrocytes. Int Immunopharmacol, 19(1), 174-177. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2013.12.007

Chitchumroonchokchai, C., Bomser, J. A., Glamm, J. E., & Failla, M. L. (2004). Xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells. J Nutr, 134(12), 3225-3232.


Choi, S. K., Park, Y. S., Choi, D. K., & Chang, H. I. (2008). Effects of astaxanthin on the production of NO and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 18(12), 1990-1996.

de Bruijn, W. J., Weesepoel, Y., Vincken, J. P., & Gruppen, H. (2016). Fatty acids attached to all-trans-astaxanthin alter its cis-trans equilibrium, and consequently its stability, upon light-accelerated autoxidation. Food Chem, 194, 1108-1115. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.077 DOI 10.1007/s13749-013-0051-5

Dona, G., Kozuh, I., Brunati, A. M., Andrisani, A., Ambrosini, G., Bonanni, G., . . . Bordin, L. (2013). Effect of astaxanthin on human sperm capacitation. Mar Drugs, 11(6), 1909-1919. doi:10.3390/md11061909

Dose, J., Matsugo, S., Yokokawa, H., Koshida, Y., Okazaki, S., Seidel, U., . . . Esatbeyoglu, T. (2016). Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin. Int J Mol Sci, 17(1). doi:10.3390/ijms17010103

Etoh, H., Suhara, M., Tokuyama, S., Kato, H., Nakahigashi, R., Maejima, Y., . . . Maoka, T. (2012). Auto-oxidation products of astaxanthin. J Oleo Sci, 61(1), 17-21.

Franceschelli, S., Pesce, M., Ferrone, A., De Lutiis, M. A., Patruno, A., Grilli, A., . . . Speranza, L. (2014). Astaxanthin treatment confers protection against oxidative stress in U937 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide reducing O2- production. PLoS One, 9(2), e88359. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088359

Gaki, G. S., & Papavassiliou, A. G. (2014). Oxidative stress-induced signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Neuromolecular Med, 16(2), 217-230. doi:10.1007/s12017-014-8294-x

Goto, S., Kogure, K., Abe, K., Kimata, Y., Kitahama, K., Yamashita, E., & Terada, H. (2001). Efficient radical trapping at the surface and inside the phospholipid membrane is responsible for highly potent antiperoxidative activity of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 1512(2), 251-258. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2736(01)00326-1

Guerra, B. A., & Otton, R. (2011). Impact of the carotenoid astaxanthin on phagocytic capacity and ROS/RNS production of human neutrophils treated with free fatty acids and high glucose. Int Immunopharmacol, 11(12), 2220-2226. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2011.10.004

Guerra, B. A., Bolin, A. P., & Otton, R. (2012). Carbonyl stress and a combination of astaxanthin/vitamin C induce biochemical changes in human neutrophils. Toxicol In Vitro, 26(7), 1181-1190. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.06.010

Guerra, B. A., Bolin, A. P., Morandi, A. C., & Otton, R. (2012). Glycolaldehyde impairs neutrophil biochemical parameters by an oxidative and calcium-dependent mechanism--protective role of antioxidants astaxanthin and vitamin C. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 98(1), 108-118. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2012.07.004

Hama, S., Uenishi, S., Yamada, A., Ohgita, T., Tsuchiya, H., Yamashita, E., & Kogure, K. (2012). Scavenging of hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution by astaxanthin encapsulated in liposomes. Biol Pharm Bull, 35(12), 2238-2242.

Hernandez-Marin, E., Galano, A., & Martinez, A. (2013). Cis carotenoids: colorful molecules and free radical quenchers. J Phys Chem B, 117(15), 4050-4061. doi:10.1021/jp401647n

Hofer, T., Jorgensen, T. O., & Olsen, R. L. (2014). Comparison of food antioxidants and iron chelators in two cellular free radical assays: strong protection by luteolin. J Agric Food Chem, 62(33), 8402-8410. doi:10.1021/jf5022779

Iizuka, M., Ayaori, M., Uto-Kondo, H., Yakushiji, E., Takiguchi, S., Nakaya, K., . . . Ikewaki, K. (2012). Astaxanthin enhances ATP-binding cassette transporter A1/G1 expressions and cholesterol efflux from macrophages. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 58(2), 96-104.

Ikeda, Y., Tsuji, S., Satoh, A., Ishikura, M., Shirasawa, T., & Shimizu, T. (2008). Protective effects of astaxanthin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Neurochem, 107(6), 1730-1740. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05743.x

Inoue, M., Tanabe, H., Matsumoto, A., Takagi, M., Umegaki, K., Amagaya, S., & Takahashi, J. (2012). Astaxanthin functions differently as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma modulator in adipocytes and macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol, 84(5), 692-700. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2012.05.021

Ishiki, M., Nishida, Y., Ishibashi, H., Wada, T., Fujisaka, S., Takikawa, A., . . . Tobe, K. (2013). Impact of divergent effects of astaxanthin on insulin signaling in L6 cells. Endocrinology, 154(8), 2600-2612. doi:10.1210/en.2012-2198

Jang, H. Y., Ji, S. J., Kim, Y. H., Lee, H. Y., Shin, J. S., Cheong, H. T., . . . Yang, B. K. (2010). Antioxidative effects of astaxanthin against nitric oxide-induced oxidative stress on cell viability and gene expression in bovine oviduct epithelial cell and the developmental competence of bovine IVM/IVF embryos. Reprod Domest Anim, 45(6), 967-974. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01469.x

Jia, Y., Kim, J. Y., Jun, H. J., Kim, S. J., Lee, J. H., Hoang, M. H., . . . Lee, S. J. (2012). The natural carotenoid astaxanthin, a PPAR-alpha agonist and PPAR-gamma antagonist, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation by rewiring the transcriptome in lipid-loaded hepatocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res, 56(6), 878-888. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201100798

Jia, Y., Wu, C., Kim, J., Kim, B., & Lee, S. J. (2016). Astaxanthin reduces hepatic lipid accumulations in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and inhibition of PPAR gamma and Akt. J Nutr Biochem, 28, 9-18. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.09.015

Kanazashi, M., Tanaka, M., Murakami, S., Kondo, H., Nagatomo, F., Ishihara, A., . . . Fujino, H. (2014). Amelioration of capillary regression and atrophy of the soleus muscle in hindlimb-unloaded rats by astaxanthin supplementation and intermittent loading. Exp Physiol, 99(8), 1065-1077. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2014.079988

Kim, J. H., Choi, W., Lee, J. H., Jeon, S. J., Choi, Y. H., Kim, B. W., . . . Nam, S. W. (2009). Astaxanthin inhibits H2O2-mediated apoptotic cell death in mouse neural progenitor cells via modulation of P38 and MEK signaling pathways. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 19(11), 1355-1363.

Kim, J. H., Nam, S. W., Kim, B. W., Choi, W., Lee, J. H., Kim, W. J., & Choi, Y. H. (2010). Astaxanthin improves stem cell potency via an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells. Int J Mol Sci, 11(12), 5109-5119. doi:10.3390/ijms11125109

Kim, J. H., Nam, S. W., Kim, B. W., Kim, W. J., & Choi, Y. H. (2010). Astaxanthin improves the proliferative capacity as well as the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential in neural stem cells. Food Chem Toxicol, 48(6), 1741-1745. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.04.002

Kim, J. H., Park, J. J., Lee, B. J., Joo, M. K., Chun, H. J., Lee, S. W., & Bak, Y. T. (2016). Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cell Lines by Interrupting Cell Cycle Progression. Gut Liver, 10(3), 369-374. doi:10.5009/gnl15208

Kim, Y. J., Kim, Y. A., & Yokozawa, T. (2009). Protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis of high-glucose-exposed proximal tubular epithelial cells by astaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem, 57(19), 8793-8797. doi:10.1021/jf9019745

Kimble, L. L., Mathison, B. D., & Chew, B. P. (2013). Astaxanthin Mediates Inflammation Biomarkers Associated with Arthritis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells Induced with Interleukin-1β. American Journal of Advanced Food Science and Technology, 2, 37-51.

Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Uto-Kondo, H., Iizuka, M., Saita, E., Sone, H., . . . Kondo, K. (2010). Astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. Eur J Nutr, 49(2), 119-126. doi:10.1007/s00394-009-0056-4

Ko, J. C., Chen, J. C., Wang, T. J., Zheng, H. Y., Chen, W. C., Chang, P. Y., & Lin, Y. W. (2016). Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol, 105, 91-100. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2016.02.016

Kuroki, T., Ikeda, S., Okada, T., Maoka, T., Kitamura, A., Sugimoto, M., & Kume, S. (2013). Astaxanthin ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of blastocyst development in vitro:--astaxanthin colocalization with and action on mitochondria. J Assist Reprod Genet, 30(5), 623-631. doi:10.1007/s10815-013-9987-z

Lee, D. H., Kim, C. S., & Lee, Y. J. (2011). Astaxanthin protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production in vivo and in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol, 49(1), 271-280. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.10.029

Li, J., Dai, W., Xia, Y., Chen, K., Li, S., Liu, T., . . . Guo, C. (2015). Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Nf-Kappab P65 and Wnt/Beta-Catenin in Vitro. Mar Drugs, 13(10), 6064-6081. doi:10.3390/md13106064

Li, R., Wu, H., Zhuo, W. W., Mao, Q. F., Lan, H., Zhang, Y., & Hua, S. (2015). Astaxanthin Normalizes Epigenetic Modifications of Bovine Somatic Cell Cloned Embryos and Decreases the Generation of Lipid Peroxidation. Reprod Domest Anim, 50(5), 793-799. doi:10.1111/rda.12589

Li, X., Wang, G., Chen, D., & Lu, Y. (2015). beta-Carotene and astaxanthin with human and bovine serum albumins. Food Chem, 179, 213-221. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.133

Li, Z., Dong, X., Liu, H., Chen, X., Shi, H., Fan, Y., . . . Zhang, X. (2013). Astaxanthin protects ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress via upregulation of Nrf2-regulated phase II enzymes through activation of PI3K/Akt. Mol Vis, 19, 1656-1666.

Liu, X., & Osawa, T. (2007). Cis astaxanthin and especially 9-cis astaxanthin exhibits a higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to the all-trans isomer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 357(1), 187-193. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.120

Liu, X., & Osawa, T. (2009). Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Forum Nutr, 61, 129-135. doi:10.1159/000212745

Liu, X., Shibata, T., Hisaka, S., & Osawa, T. (2009). Astaxanthin inhibits reactive oxygen species-mediated cellular toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells via mitochondria-targeted protective mechanism. Brain Res, 1254, 18-27. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.11.076

Lobos, P., Bruna, B., Cordova, A., Barattini, P., Galaz, J. L., Adasme, T., . . . Paula-Lima, A. (2016). Astaxanthin Protects Primary Hippocampal Neurons against Noxious Effects of Abeta-Oligomers. Neural Plast, 2016, 3456783. doi:10.1155/2016/3456783

Lordan, S., O'Neill, C., & O'Brien, N. M. (2008). Effects of apigenin, lycopene and astaxanthin on 7 beta-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis and Akt phosphorylation in U937 cells. Br J Nutr, 100(2), 287-296. doi:10.1017/s0007114507898643

Lu, Y. P., Liu, S. Y., Sun, H., Wu, X. M., Li, J. J., & Zhu, L. (2010). Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin on H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and on focal cerebral ischemia in vivo. Brain Res, 1360, 40-48. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.016

Macedo, R. C., Bolin, A. P., Marin, D. P., & Otton, R. (2010). Astaxanthin addition improves human neutrophils function: in vitro study. Eur J Nutr, 49(8), 447-457. doi:10.1007/s00394-010-0103-1

Mahmoud, F. F., Haines, D., Al-Awadhi, R., Arifhodzic, N., Abal, A., Azeamouzi, C., . . . Tosaki, A. (2012). In vitro suppression of lymphocyte activation in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and pollen-related asthma by cetirizine or azelastine in combination with ginkgolide B or astaxanthin. Acta Physiol Hung, 99(2), 173-184. doi:10.1556/APhysiol.99.2012.2.11

Manabe, E., Handa, O., Naito, Y., Mizushima, K., Akagiri, S., Adachi, S., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2008). Astaxanthin protects mesangial cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative signaling. J Cell Biochem, 103(6), 1925-1937. doi:10.1002/jcb.21583

Manabe, Y., Hirata, T., & Sugawara, T. (2014). Suppressive effects of carotenoids on the antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. J Oleo Sci, 63(3), 291-294.

McNulty, H. P., Byun, J., Lockwood, S. F., Jacob, R. F., & Mason, R. P. (2007). Differential effects of carotenoids on lipid peroxidation due to membrane interactions: X-ray diffraction analysis. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1768(1), 167-174. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2006.09.010

McNulty, H., Jacob, R. F., & Mason, R. P. (2008). Biologic activity of carotenoids related to distinct membrane physicochemical interactions. Am J Cardiol, 101(10a), 20d-29d. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.02.004

Miyachi, M., Matsuno, T., Asano, K., & Mataga, I. (2015). Anti-inflammatory effects of astaxanthin in the human gingival keratinocyte line NDUSD-1. J Clin Biochem Nutr, 56(3), 171-178. doi:10.3164/jcbn.14-109

Moretti, V. M., Mentasti, T., Bellagamba, F., Luzzana, U., Caprino, F., Turchini, G. M., . . . Valfre, F. (2006). Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source. Food Addit Contam, 23(11), 1056-1063. doi:10.1080/02652030600838399

Musser, A. J., Maiuri, M., Brida, D., Cerullo, G., Friend, R. H., & Clark, J. (2015). The nature of singlet exciton fission in carotenoid aggregates. J Am Chem Soc, 137(15), 5130-5139. doi:10.1021/jacs.5b01130

Nakajima, H., Fukazawa, K., Wakabayashi, Y., Wakamatsu, K., Senda, K., & Imokawa, G. (2012). Abrogating effect of a xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin on the stem cell factor-induced stimulation of human epidermal pigmentation. Arch Dermatol Res, 304(10), 803-816. doi:10.1007/s00403-012-1248-y

Nakajima, Y., Inokuchi, Y., Shimazawa, M., Otsubo, K., Ishibashi, T., & Hara, H. (2008). Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol, 60(10), 1365-1374. doi:10.1211/jpp/60.10.0013

Nishida, Y., Yamashita, E., & Miki, W. (2007). Quenching activities of common hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants against singlet oxygen using chemiluminescence detection system. Carotenoid Science, 11(6), 16-20.

Nishigaki, I., Rajendran, P., Venugopal, R., Ekambaram, G., Sakthisekaran, D., & Nishigaki, Y. (2010). Cytoprotective role of astaxanthin against glycated protein/iron chelate-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Phytother Res, 24(1), 54-59. doi:10.1002/ptr.2867

Niwano, T., Terazawa, S., Nakajima, H., Wakabayashi, Y., & Imokawa, G. (2015). Astaxanthin and withaferin A block paracrine cytokine interactions between UVB-exposed human keratinocytes and human melanocytes via the attenuation of endothelin-1 secretion and its downstream intracellular signaling. Cytokine, 73(2), 184-197. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2015.02.006

Ohno, M., Darwish, W. S., Ikenaka, Y., Miki, W., & Ishizuka, M. (2011). Astaxanthin can alter CYP1A-dependent activities via two different mechanisms: induction of protein expression and inhibition of NADPH P450 reductase dependent electron transfer. Food Chem Toxicol, 49(6), 1285-1291. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.03.009

Okada, Y., Ishikura, M., & Maoka, T. (2009). Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 73(9), 1928-1932. doi:10.1271/bbb.90078

Palozza, P., Torelli, C., Boninsegna, A., Simone, R., Catalano, A., Mele, M. C., & Picci, N. (2009). Growth-inhibitory effects of the astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 283(1), 108-117. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.03.031

Papa, T. B., Pinho, V. D., do Nascimento, E. S., Santos, W. G., Burtoloso, A. C., Skibsted, L. H., & Cardoso, D. R. (2015). Astaxanthin diferulate as a bifunctional antioxidant. Free Radic Res, 49(1), 102-111. doi:10.3109/10715762.2014.982112

Peng, C. H., Chang, C. H., Peng, R. Y., & Chyau, C. C. (2010). Improved membrane transport of astaxanthine by liposomal encapsulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 75(2), 154-161. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2010.03.004

Qiu, D., Wu, Y. C., Zhu, W. L., Yin, H., & Yi, L. T. (2012). Identification of geometrical isomers and comparison of different isomeric samples of astaxanthin. J Food Sci, 77(9), C934-940. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02842.x

Rao, A. R., Sindhuja, H. N., Dharmesh, S. M., Sankar, K. U., Sarada, R., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2013). Effective inhibition of skin cancer, tyrosinase, and antioxidative properties by astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J Agric Food Chem, 61(16), 3842-3851. doi:10.1021/jf304609j

Regnier, P., Bastias, J., Rodriguez-Ruiz, V., Caballero-Casero, N., Caballo, C., Sicilia, D., . . . Pavon-Djavid, G. (2015). Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity. Mar Drugs, 13(5), 2857-2874. doi:10.3390/md13052857

Santocono, M., Zurria, M., Berrettini, M., Fedeli, D., & Falcioni, G. (2006). Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells. J Photochem Photobiol B, 85(3), 205-215. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2006.07.009

Santocono, M., Zurria, M., Berrettini, M., Fedeli, D., & Falcioni, G. (2007). Lutein, zeaxanthin and astaxanthin protect against DNA damage in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells induced by reactive nitrogen species. J Photochem Photobiol B, 88(1), 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2007.04.007

Santos, S. D., Cahu, T. B., Firmino, G. O., de Castro, C. C., Carvalho, L. B., Jr., Bezerra, R. S., & Filho, J. L. (2012). Shrimp waste extract and astaxanthin: rat alveolar macrophage, oxidative stress and inflammation. J Food Sci, 77(7), H141-146. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02762.x

Saw, C. L., Yang, A. Y., Guo, Y., & Kong, A. N. (2013). Astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids individually and in combination protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Food Chem Toxicol, 62, 869-875. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.023

Shibata, A., Kiba, Y., Akati, N., Fukuzawa, K., & Terada, H. (2001). Molecular characteristics of astaxanthin and β-carotene in the phospholipid monolayer and their distributions in the phospholipid bilayer. Chem Phys Lipids, 113(1–2), 11-22. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-3084(01)00136-0

Shimidzu, N., Goto, M., & Miki, W. (1996). Carotenoids as singlet oxygen quenchers in marine organisms. Fisheries science, 62(1), 134-137.

Sowmya, P. R., Arathi, B. P., Vijay, K., Baskaran, V., & Lakshminarayana, R. (2015). Role of different vehicles in carotenoids delivery and their influence on cell viability, cell cycle progression, and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells. Mol Cell Biochem, 406(1-2), 245-253. doi:10.1007/s11010-015-2442-y

Suganuma, K., Nakajima, H., Ohtsuki, M., & Imokawa, G. (2010). Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci, 58(2), 136-142. doi:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2010.02.009

Sun, Z., Liu, J., Zeng, X., Huangfu, J., Jiang, Y., Wang, M., & Chen, F. (2011). Protective actions of microalgae against endogenous and exogenous advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Food Funct, 2(5), 251-258. doi:10.1039/c1fo10021a

Sy, C., Gleize, B., Dangles, O., Landrier, J. F., Veyrat, C. C., & Borel, P. (2012). Effects of physicochemical properties of carotenoids on their bioaccessibility, intestinal cell uptake, and blood and tissue concentrations. Mol Nutr Food Res, 56(9), 1385-1397. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201200041

Terazawa, S., Nakajima, H., Shingo, M., Niwano, T., & Imokawa, G. (2012). Astaxanthin attenuates the UVB-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8 in human keratinocytes by interrupting MSK1 phosphorylation in a ROS depletion-independent manner. Exp Dermatol, 21 Suppl 1, 11-17. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01496.x

Tripathi, D. N., & Jena, G. B. (2008). Astaxanthin inhibits cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide in mice germ cells. Toxicology, 248(2-3), 96-103. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2008.03.015

Wakshlag, J. J., Balkman, C. A., Morgan, S. K., & McEntee, M. C. (2010). Evaluation of the protective effects of all-trans-astaxanthin on canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Am J Vet Res, 71(1), 89-96. doi:10.2460/ajvr.71.1.89

Wang, H. Q., Sun, X. B., Xu, Y. X., Zhao, H., Zhu, Q. Y., & Zhu, C. Q. (2010). Astaxanthin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 expression through ERK1/2 pathway and its protective effect against beta-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Brain Res, 1360, 159-167. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.08.100

Wang, J. Y., Lee, Y. J., Chou, M. C., Chang, R., Chiu, C. H., Liang, Y. J., & Wu, L. S. (2015). Astaxanthin protects steroidogenesis from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells. Mar Drugs, 13(3), 1375-1388. doi:10.3390/md13031375

Wen, X., Huang, A., Hu, J., Zhong, Z., Liu, Y., Li, Z., . . . Liu, Z. (2015). Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells: Involvement of the Akt/GSK-3beta pathway. Neuroscience, 303, 558-568. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.034

Wolf, A. M., Asoh, S., Hiranuma, H., Ohsawa, I., Iio, K., Satou, A., . . . Ohta, S. (2010). Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox state and functional integrity against oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem, 21(5), 381-389. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.01.011

Xu, Y., Zhang, J., Jiang, W., & Zhang, S. (2015). Astaxanthin induces angiogenesis through Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Phytomedicine, 22(7-8), 744-751. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2015.05.054

Yamagishi, R., & Aihara, M. (2014). Neuroprotective effect of astaxanthin against rat retinal ganglion cell death under various stresses that induce apoptosis and necrosis. Mol Vis, 20, 1796-1805.

Yan, T., Zhao, Y., Zhang, X., & Lin, X. (2016). Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways. Mar Drugs, 14(3). doi:10.3390/md14030056

Yang, Y., Bae, M., Kim, B., Park, Y. K., Koo, S. I., & Lee, J. Y. (2016). Astaxanthin prevents and reverses the activation of mouse primary hepatic stellate cells. J Nutr Biochem, 29, 21-26. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.11.005

Yang, Y., Kim, B., Park, Y. K., Koo, S. I., & Lee, J. Y. (2015). Astaxanthin prevents TGFbeta1-induced pro-fibrogenic gene expression by inhibiting Smad3 activation in hepatic stellate cells. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1850(1), 178-185. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.10.014

Ye, Q., Huang, B., Zhang, X., Zhu, Y., & Chen, X. (2012). Astaxanthin protects against MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via the HO-1/NOX2 axis. BMC Neurosci, 13, 156. doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-156

Ye, Q., Zhang, X., Huang, B., Zhu, Y., & Chen, X. (2013). Astaxanthin suppresses MPP(+)-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells through a Sp1/NR1 signaling pathway. Mar Drugs, 11(4), 1019-1034. doi:10.3390/md11041019

Yoshihisa, Y., Rehman, M. U., & Shimizu, T. (2014). Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, inhibits ultraviolet-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol, 23(3), 178-183. doi:10.1111/exd.12347

Zhang, J., Xu, P., Wang, Y., Wang, M., Li, H., Lin, S., . . . Lv, C. (2015). Astaxanthin prevents pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis dependent on Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. J Cell Mol Med, 19(9), 2215-2231. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12609

Zhang, X., Zhao, W. E., Hu, L., Zhao, L., & Huang, J. (2011). Carotenoids inhibit proliferation and regulate expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in K562 cancer cells. Arch Biochem Biophys, 512(1), 96-106. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2011.05.004

Zheng, Y. F., Bae, S. H., Kwon, M. J., Park, J. B., Choi, H. D., Shin, W. G., & Bae, S. K. (2013). Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. Food Chem Toxicol, 59, 78-85. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.04.053