Human Clinical Trials

Anderson, M. L. (2014). Evaluation of Resettin(R) on serum hormone levels in sedentary males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 11, 43. doi:10.1186/s12970-014-0043-x

Andrisani, A., Dona, G., Tibaldi, E., Brunati, A. M., Sabbadin, C., Armanini, D., . . . Bordin, L. (2015). Astaxanthin Improves Human Sperm Capacitation by Inducing Lyn Displacement and Activation. Mar Drugs, 13(9), 5533-5551. doi:10.3390/md13095533

Baralic, I., Djordjevic, B., Dikic, N., Kotur-Stevuljevic, J., Spasic, S., Jelic-Ivanovic, Z., . . . Pejic, S. (2013). Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on paraoxonase 1 activities and oxidative stress status in young soccer players. Phytother Res, 27(10), 1536-1542. doi:10.1002/ptr.4898

Choi, H. D., Kim, J. H., Chang, M. J., Kyu-Youn, Y., & Shin, W. G. (2011). Effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults. Phytother Res, 25(12), 1813-1818. doi:10.1002/ptr.3494

Choi, H. D., Youn, Y. K., & Shin, W. G. (2011). Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 66(4), 363-369. doi:10.1007/s11130-011-0258-9

Chous, A. P., Richer, S. P., Gerson, J. D., & Kowluru, R. A. (2016). The Diabetes Visual Function Supplement Study (DiVFuSS). Br J Ophthalmol, 100(2), 227-234. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-306534

Coombes, J. S., Sharman, J. E., & Fassett, R. G. (2016). Astaxanthin has no effect on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, or inflammation in renal transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial (the XANTHIN trial). Am J Clin Nutr, 103(1), 283-289. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.115477

Djordjevic, B., Baralic, I., Kotur-Stevuljevic, J., Stefanovic, A., Ivanisevic, J., Radivojevic, N., . . . Dikic, N. (2012). Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 52(4), 382-392.

Earnest, C. P., Lupo, M., White, K. M., & Church, T. S. (2011). Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med, 32(11), 882-888. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1280779

Fassett, R. G., Healy, H., Driver, R., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., Sharman, J. E., & Coombes, J. S. (2008). Astaxanthin vs placebo on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress and inflammation in renal transplant patients (Xanthin): a randomised controlled trial. BMC Nephrol, 9, 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2369-9-17

Kajita, M., Tsukahara, H., & Kato, M. (2009). The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on the accommodation function of the eye in middle-aged and older people. Med Consult New Remedies, 46, 89-93.

Karppi, J., Rissanen, T. H., Nyyssonen, K., Kaikkonen, J., Olsson, A. G., Voutilainen, S., & Salonen, J. T. (2007). Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 77(1), 3-11. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.77.1.3

Katagiri, M., Satoh, A., Tsuji, S., & Shirasawa, T. (2012). Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Biochem Nutr, 51(2), 102-107. doi:10.3164/jcbn.11-00017

Kim, J. H., Chang, M. J., Choi, H. D., Youn, Y. K., Kim, J. T., Oh, J. M., & Shin, W. G. (2011). Protective effects of Haematococcus astaxanthin on oxidative stress in healthy smokers. J Med Food, 14(11), 1469-1475. doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.1626

Klinkenberg, L. J., Res, P. T., Haenen, G. R., Bast, A., van Loon, L. J., van Dieijen-Visser, M. P., & Meex, S. J. (2013). Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial. PLoS One, 8(11), e79280. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079280

Kupcinskas, L., Lafolie, P., Lignell, A., Kiudelis, G., Jonaitis, L., Adamonis, K., . . . Wadstrom, T. (2008). Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: A prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine, 15(6-7), 391-399. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2008.04.004

LaRowe, T. L., Mares, J. A., Snodderly, D. M., Klein, M. L., Wooten, B. R., & Chappell, R. (2008). Macular pigment density and age-related maculopathy in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. An ancillary study of the women's health initiative. Ophthalmology, 115(5), 876-883.e871. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.06.015

Macdermid, J. C., Vincent, J. I., Gan, B. S., & Grewal, R. (2012). A blinded placebo-controlled randomized trial on the use of astaxanthin as an adjunct to splinting in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand (N Y), 7(1), 1-9. doi:10.1007/s11552-011-9381-1

Maki, K. C., Geohas, J. G., Dicklin, M. R., Huebner, M., & Udani, J. K. (2015). Safety and lipid-altering efficacy of a new omega-3 fatty acid and antioxidant-containing medical food in men and women with elevated triacylglycerols. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 99, 41-46. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2015.05.002

Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., & Miyazawa, T. (2011). Erythrocytes carotenoids after astaxanthin supplementation in middle-aged and senior Japanese subjects. J Oleo Sci, 60(10), 495-499.

Miyazawa, T., Nakagawa, K., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., & Miyazawa, T. (2011). Plasma carotenoid concentrations before and after supplementation with astaxanthin in middle-aged and senior subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 75(9), 1856-1858. doi:10.1271/bbb.110368

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpentero Burdeos, G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., & Miyazawa, T. (2011). Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Br J Nutr, 105(11), 1563-1571. doi:10.1017/s0007114510005398

Okada, Y., Ishikura, M., & Maoka, T. (2009). Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 73(9), 1928-1932. doi:10.1271/bbb.90078

Parisi, V., Tedeschi, M., Gallinaro, G., Varano, M., Saviano, S., & Piermarocchi, S. (2008). Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year. Ophthalmology, 115(2), 324-333.e322. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.05.029

Park, J. S., Chyun, J. H., Kim, Y. K., Line, L. L., & Chew, B. P. (2010). Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond), 7, 18. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-18

Piermarocchi, S., Saviano, S., Parisi, V., Tedeschi, M., Panozzo, G., Scarpa, G., . . . Lo Giudice, G. (2012). Carotenoids in Age-related Maculopathy Italian Study (CARMIS): two-year results of a randomized study. Eur J Ophthalmol, 22(2), 216-225. doi:10.5301/ejo.5000069

Res, P. T., Cermak, N. M., Stinkens, R., Tollakson, T. J., Haenen, G. R., Bast, A., & Van Loon, L. J. (2013). Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 45(6), 1158-1165. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31827fddc4

Ruscica, M., Gomaraschi, M., Mombelli, G., Macchi, C., Bosisio, R., Pazzucconi, F., . . . Magni, P. (2014). Nutraceutical approach to moderate cardiometabolic risk: results of a randomized, double-blind and crossover study with Armolipid Plus. J Clin Lipidol, 8(1), 61-68. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2013.11.003

Saito, M., Yoshida, K., Saito, W., Fujiya, A., Ohgami, K., Kitaichi, N., . . . Ohno, S. (2012). Astaxanthin increases choroidal blood flow velocity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol, 250(2), 239-245. doi:10.1007/s00417-011-1843-1

Satoh, A., Tsuji, S., Okada, Y., Murakami, N., Urami, M., Nakagawa, K., . . . Shirasawa, T. (2009). Preliminary Clinical Evaluation of Toxicity and Efficacy of A New Astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis Extract. J Clin Biochem Nutr, 44(3), 280-284. doi:10.3164/jcbn.08-238

Spiller, G. A., & Dewell, A. (2003). Safety of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial. J Med Food, 6(1), 51-56. doi:10.1089/109662003765184741

Tominaga, K., Hongo, N., Karato, M., & Yamashita, E. (2012). Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Acta Biochim Pol, 59(1), 43-47.

Yoon, H. S., Cho, H. H., Cho, S., Lee, S. R., Shin, M. H., & Chung, J. H. (2014). Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo. J Med Food, 17(7), 810-816. doi:10.1089/jmf.2013.3060

Yoshida, H., Yanai, H., Ito, K., Tomono, Y., Koikeda, T., Tsukahara, H., & Tada, N. (2010). Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis, 209(2), 520-523. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.10.012

Zanotta, D., Puricelli, S., & Bonoldi, G. (2014). Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 10, 225-230. doi:10.2147/ndt.s51092