Pre-Clinical Biological Studies

Abadie-Guedes, R., Guedes, R. C., & Bezerra, R. S. (2012). The impairing effect of acute ethanol on spreading depression is antagonized by astaxanthin in rats of 2 young-adult ages. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 36(9), 1563-1567. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01766.x

Abadie-Guedes, R., Santos, S. D., Cahu, T. B., Guedes, R. C., & de Souza Bezerra, R. (2008). Dose-dependent effects of astaxanthin on cortical spreading depression in chronically ethanol-treated adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 32(8), 1417-1421. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00710.x

Al-Amin, M. M., Rahman, M. M., Khan, F. R., Zaman, F., & Mahmud Reza, H. (2015). Astaxanthin improves behavioral disorder and oxidative stress in prenatal valproic acid-induced mice model of autism. Behav Brain Res, 286, 112-121. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.02.041

Aoi, W., Naito, Y., Takanami, Y., Ishii, T., Kawai, Y., Akagiri, S., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2008). Astaxanthin improves muscle lipid metabolism in exercise via inhibitory effect of oxidative CPT I modification. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 366(4), 892-897. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.019

Augusti, P. R., Conterato, G. M., Somacal, S., Sobieski, R., Quatrin, A., Maurer, L., . . . Emanuelli, T. (2009). Astaxanthin reduces oxidative stress, but not aortic damage in atherosclerotic rabbits. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther, 14(4), 314-322. doi:10.1177/1074248409350136

Augusti, P. R., Conterato, G. M., Somacal, S., Sobieski, R., Spohr, P. R., Torres, J. V., . . . Emanuelli, T. (2008). Effect of astaxanthin on kidney function impairment and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 46(1), 212-219. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.001

Balietti, M., Giannubilo, S. R., Giorgetti, B., Solazzi, M., Turi, A., Casoli, T., . . . Fattorettia, P. (2016). The effect of astaxanthin on the aging rat brain: gender-related differences in modulating inflammation. J Sci Food Agric, 96(2), 615-618. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7131

Barros, M. P., Marin, D. P., Bolin, A. P., de Cassia Santos Macedo, R., Campoio, T. R., Fineto, C., Jr., . . . Otton, R. (2012). Combined astaxanthin and fish oil supplementation improves glutathione-based redox balance in rat plasma and neutrophils. Chem Biol Interact, 197(1), 58-67. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.03.005

Bhuvaneswari, S., & Anuradha, C. V. (2012). Astaxanthin prevents loss of insulin signaling and improves glucose metabolism in liver of insulin resistant mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 90(11), 1544-1552. doi:10.1139/y2012-119

Bhuvaneswari, S., Yogalakshmi, B., Sreeja, S., & Anuradha, C. V. (2014). Astaxanthin reduces hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammation in high fructose and high fat diet-fed mice. Cell Stress Chaperones, 19(2), 183-191. doi:10.1007/s12192-013-0443-x

Brizio, P., Benedetto, A., Righetti, M., Prearo, M., Gasco, L., Squadrone, S., & Abete, M. C. (2013). Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin (xanthophyll) as supplements in rainbow trout diet: in vivo assessment of residual levels and contributions to human health. J Agric Food Chem, 61(46), 10954-10959. doi:10.1021/jf4012664

Buesen, R., Schulte, S., Strauss, V., Treumann, S., Becker, M., Groters, S., . . . van Ravenzwaay, B. (2015). Safety assessment of [3S, 3'S]-astaxanthin--Subchronic toxicity study in rats. Food Chem Toxicol, 81, 129-136. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.017

Cao, J., & Wang, W. (2014). Effects of astaxanthin and esterified glucomannan on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed aflatoxin-B1-contaminated feed. Anim Sci J, 85(2), 150-157. doi:10.1111/asj.12103

Chan, K. C., Pen, P. J., & Yin, M. C. (2012). Anticoagulatory and antiinflammatory effects of astaxanthin in diabetic rats. J Food Sci, 77(2), H76-80. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02558.x

Chen, Y. Y., Lee, P. C., Wu, Y. L., & Liu, L. Y. (2015). In Vivo Effects of Free Form Astaxanthin Powder on Anti-Oxidation and Lipid Metabolism with High-Cholesterol Diet. PLoS One, 10(8), e0134733. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134733

Chew, B. P., Mathison, B. D., Hayek, M. G., Massimino, S., Reinhart, G. A., & Park, J. S. (2011). Dietary astaxanthin enhances immune response in dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 140(3-4), 199-206. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.12.004

Choi, H. D., Kang, H. E., Yang, S. H., Lee, M. G., & Shin, W. G. (2011). Pharmacokinetics and first-pass metabolism of astaxanthin in rats. Br J Nutr, 105(2), 220-227. doi:10.1017/s0007114510003454

Cort, A., Ozturk, N., Akpinar, D., Unal, M., Yucel, G., Ciftcioglu, A., . . . Aslan, M. (2010). Suppressive effect of astaxanthin on retinal injury induced by elevated intraocular pressure. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 58(1), 121-130. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.05.001

Curek, G. D., Cort, A., Yucel, G., Demir, N., Ozturk, S., Elpek, G. O., . . . Aslan, M. (2010). Effect of astaxanthin on hepatocellular injury following ischemia/reperfusion. Toxicology, 267(1-3), 147-153. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.11.003

Diaz, A. C., Velurtas, S. M., Espino, M. L., & Fenucci, J. L. (2014). Effect of dietary astaxanthin on free radical scavenging capacity and nitrite stress tolerance of postlarvae shrimp, Pleoticus muelleri. J Agric Food Chem, 62(51), 12326-12331. doi:10.1021/jf503754q

Do, L. T., Luu, V. V., Morita, Y., Taniguchi, M., Nii, M., Peter, A. T., & Otoi, T. (2015). Astaxanthin present in the maturation medium reduces negative effects of heat shock on the developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Reprod Biol, 15(2), 86-93. doi:10.1016/j.repbio.2015.01.002

Dolma, T., Mukherjee, R., Pati, B. K., & De, U. K. (2014). Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model. J Vet Med, 2014, 147652. doi:10.1155/2014/147652

Dong, L. Y., Jin, J., Lu, G., & Kang, X. L. (2013). Astaxanthin attenuates the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in db/db mice by inhibition of oxidative stress. Mar Drugs, 11(3), 960-974. doi:10.3390/md11030960

Eilertsen, K. E., Maehre, H. K., Jensen, I. J., Devold, H., Olsen, J. O., Lie, R. K., . . . Osterud, B. (2012). A wax ester and astaxanthin-rich extract from the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus attenuates atherogenesis in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr, 142(3), 508-512. doi:10.3945/jn.111.145698

Gal, A. F., Andrei, S., Cernea, C., Taulescu, M., & Catoi, C. (2012). Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on chemically induced tumorigenesis in Wistar rats. Acta Vet Scand, 54, 50. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-54-50

Ghlissi, Z., Hakim, A., Sila, A., Mnif, H., Zeghal, K., Rebai, T., . . . Sahnoun, Z. (2014). Evaluation of efficacy of natural astaxanthin and vitamin E in prevention of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat model. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 37(3), 960-966. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2014.03.004

Guo, S. X., Zhou, H. L., Huang, C. L., You, C. G., Fang, Q., Wu, P., . . . Han, C. M. (2015). Astaxanthin attenuates early acute kidney injury following severe burns in rats by ameliorating oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptosis. Mar Drugs, 13(4), 2105-2123. doi:10.3390/md13042105

Haines, D. D., Varga, B., Bak, I., Juhasz, B., Mahmoud, F. F., Kalantari, H., . . . Tosaki, A. (2011). Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen. Phytother Res, 25(1), 128-136. doi:10.1002/ptr.3160

Hama, S., Takahashi, K., Inai, Y., Shiota, K., Sakamoto, R., Yamada, A., . . . Kogure, K. (2012). Protective effects of topical application of a poorly soluble antioxidant astaxanthin liposomal formulation on ultraviolet-induced skin damage. J Pharm Sci, 101(8), 2909-2916. doi:10.1002/jps.23216

Huang, L. J., & Chen, W. P. (2015). Astaxanthin ameliorates cartilage damage in experimental osteoarthritis. Mod Rheumatol, 25(5), 768-771. doi:10.3109/14397595.2015.1008724

Huangfu, J., Liu, J., Sun, Z., Wang, M., Jiang, Y., Chen, Z. Y., & Chen, F. (2013). Antiaging effects of astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis on fruit flies under oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem, 61(32), 7800-7804. doi:10.1021/jf402224w

Hussein, G., Goto, H., Oda, S., Iguchi, T., Sankawa, U., Matsumoto, K., & Watanabe, H. (2005). Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin: II. Vascular reactivity and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull, 28(6), 967-971.

Hussein, G., Goto, H., Oda, S., Sankawa, U., Matsumoto, K., & Watanabe, H. (2006). Antihypertensive potential and mechanism of action of astaxanthin: III. Antioxidant and histopathological effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull, 29(4), 684-688.

Hussein, G., Nakagawa, T., Goto, H., Shimada, Y., Matsumoto, K., Sankawa, U., & Watanabe, H. (2007). Astaxanthin ameliorates features of metabolic syndrome in SHR/NDmcr-cp. Life Sci, 80(6), 522-529. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.09.041

Hussein, G., Nakamura, M., Zhao, Q., Iguchi, T., Goto, H., Sankawa, U., & Watanabe, H. (2005). Antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in experimental animals. Biol Pharm Bull, 28(1), 47-52.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., & Yazawa, K. (2006). Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Biol Pharm Bull, 29(10), 2106-2110.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., & Yazawa, K. (2007). Effects of astaxanthin in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 71(4), 893-899. doi:10.1271/bbb.60521

Ishikawa, S., Hashizume, K., Nishigori, H., Tezuka, Y., Sanbe, A., & Kurosaka, D. (2015). Effect of astaxanthin on cataract formation induced by glucocorticoids in the chick embryo. Curr Eye Res, 40(5), 535-540. doi:10.3109/02713683.2014.935445

Izumi-Nagai, K., Nagai, N., Ohgami, K., Satofuka, S., Ozawa, Y., Tsubota, K., . . . Ishida, S. (2008). Inhibition of choroidal neovascularization with an anti-inflammatory carotenoid astaxanthin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 49(4), 1679-1685. doi:10.1167/iovs.07-1426

Jagruthi, C., Yogeshwari, G., Anbazahan, S. M., Mari, L. S., Arockiaraj, J., Mariappan, P., . . . Harikrishnan, R. (2014). Effect of dietary astaxanthin against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 41(2), 674-680. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.10.010

Jyonouchi, H., Sun, S., Iijima, K., & Gross, M. D. (2000). Antitumor activity of astaxanthin and its mode of action. Nutr Cancer, 36(1), 59-65. Retrieved from \\tks-az-fp-01\library\papers\Jyonouchi1.pdf

Kamath, B. S., Srikanta, B. M., Dharmesh, S. M., Sarada, R., & Ravishankar, G. A. (2008). Ulcer preventive and antioxidative properties of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Eur J Pharmacol, 590(1-3), 387-395. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.06.042

Kanazashi, M., Okumura, Y., Al-Nassan, S., Murakami, S., Kondo, H., Nagatomo, F., . . . Fujino, H. (2013). Protective effects of astaxanthin on capillary regression in atrophied soleus muscle of rats. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 207(2), 405-415. doi:10.1111/apha.12018

Kavitha, K., Kowshik, J., Kishore, T. K., Baba, A. B., & Nagini, S. (2013). Astaxanthin inhibits NF-kappaB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways via inactivation of Erk/MAPK and PI3K/Akt to induce intrinsic apoptosis in a hamster model of oral cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1830(10), 4433-4444. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.05.032

Kim, H., Ahn, Y. T., Lee, G. S., Cho, S. I., Kim, J. M., Lee, C., . . . An, W. G. (2015). Effects of astaxanthin on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis in mice. Mol Med Rep, 12(3), 3632-3638. doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.3892

Kochi, T., Shimizu, M., Sumi, T., Kubota, M., Shirakami, Y., Tanaka, T., & Moriwaki, H. (2014). Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin on azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in C57/BL/KsJ-db/db mice. BMC Gastroenterol, 14, 212. doi:10.1186/s12876-014-0212-z

Komaki, A., Karimi, S. A., Salehi, I., Sarihi, A., Shahidi, S., & Zarei, M. (2015). The treatment combination of vitamins E and C and astaxanthin prevents high-fat diet induced memory deficits in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 131, 98-103. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2015.02.008

Kowshik, J., Baba, A. B., Giri, H., Deepak Reddy, G., Dixit, M., & Nagini, S. (2014). Astaxanthin inhibits JAK/STAT-3 signaling to abrogate cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in a hamster model of oral cancer. PLoS One, 9(10), e109114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109114

Leite, M. F., De Lima, A., Massuyama, M. M., & Otton, R. (2010). In vivo astaxanthin treatment partially prevents antioxidant alterations in dental pulp from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int Endod J, 43(11), 959-967. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2010.01707.x

Leite, M. F., Lima, A. M., & Otton, R. (2012). Combination of astaxanthin and fish oil supplementation alters antioxidant enzyme profile of dental pulp tissue. Int Endod J, 45(12), 1109-1115. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2591.2012.02080.x

Lennikov, A., Kitaichi, N., Fukase, R., Murata, M., Noda, K., Ando, R., . . . Ishida, S. (2012). Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops. Mol Vis, 18, 455-464.

Li, J., Wang, F., Xia, Y., Dai, W., Chen, K., Li, S., . . . Guo, C. (2015). Astaxanthin Pretreatment Attenuates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy via the ROS/MAPK Pathway in Mice. Mar Drugs, 13(6), 3368-3387. doi:10.3390/md13063368

Li, J., Xia, Y., Liu, T., Wang, J., Dai, W., Wang, F., . . . Guo, C. (2015). Protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK pathway-mediated inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis. PLoS One, 10(3), e0120440. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120440

Li, X., Qi, Z., Zhao, L., & Yu, Z. (2016). Astaxanthin reduces type 2 diabeticassociated cognitive decline in rats via activation of PI3K/Akt and attenuation of oxidative stress. Mol Med Rep, 13(1), 973-979. doi:10.3892/mmr.2015.4615

Liao, J. H., Chen, C. S., Maher, T. J., Liu, C. Y., Lin, M. H., Wu, T. H., & Wu, S. H. (2009). Astaxanthin interacts with selenite and attenuates selenite-induced cataractogenesis. Chem Res Toxicol, 22(3), 518-525. doi:10.1021/tx800378z

Lin, K. H., Lin, K. C., Lu, W. J., Thomas, P. A., Jayakumar, T., & Sheu, J. R. (2016). Astaxanthin, a Carotenoid, Stimulates Immune Responses by Enhancing IFN-gamma and IL-2 Secretion in Primary Cultured Lymphocytes in Vitro and ex Vivo. Int J Mol Sci, 17(1). doi:10.3390/ijms17010044

Lin, T. Y., Lu, C. W., & Wang, S. J. (2010). Astaxanthin inhibits glutamate release in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals via suppression of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) entry and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. J Agric Food Chem, 58(14), 8271-8278. doi:10.1021/jf101689t

Liu, F., Shi, H. Z., Guo, Q. S., Yu, Y. B., Wang, A. M., Lv, F., & Shen, W. B. (2016). Effects of astaxanthin and emodin on the growth, stress resistance and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Fish Shellfish Immunol, 51, 125-135. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2016.02.020

Liu, G., Shi, Y., Peng, X., Liu, H., Peng, Y., & He, L. (2015). Astaxanthin attenuates adriamycin-induced focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Pharmacology, 95(3-4), 193-200. doi:10.1159/000381314

Liu, P. H., Aoi, W., Takami, M., Terajima, H., Tanimura, Y., Naito, Y., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2014). The astaxanthin-induced improvement in lipid metabolism during exercise is mediated by a PGC-1alpha increase in skeletal muscle. J Clin Biochem Nutr, 54(2), 86-89. doi:10.3164/jcbn.13-110

Lu, Y., Xie, T., He, X. X., Mao, Z. F., Jia, L. J., Wang, W. P., . . . Liu, L. M. (2015). Astaxanthin rescues neuron loss and attenuates oxidative stress induced by amygdala kindling in adult rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett, 597, 49-53. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.04.018

Maoka, T., Tokuda, H., Suzuki, N., Kato, H., & Etoh, H. (2012). Anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of nitroastaxanthin and nitrolutein, the reaction products of astaxanthin and lutein with peroxynitrite. Mar Drugs, 10(6), 1391-1399. doi:10.3390/md10061391

Mattei, R., Polotow, T. G., Vardaris, C. V., Guerra, B. A., Leite, J. R., Otton, R., & Barros, M. P. (2011). Astaxanthin limits fish oil-related oxidative insult in the anterior forebrain of Wistar rats: putative anxiolytic effects? Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 99(3), 349-355. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2011.05.009

Mizuta, M., Hirano, S., Hiwatashi, N., Tateya, I., Kanemaru, S., Nakamura, T., & Ito, J. (2014). Effect of astaxanthin on vocal fold wound healing. Laryngoscope, 124(1), E1-7. doi:10.1002/lary.24197

Monroy-Ruiz, J., Sevilla, M. A., Carron, R., & Montero, M. J. (2011). Astaxanthin-enriched-diet reduces blood pressure and improves cardiovascular parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol Res, 63(1), 44-50. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2010.09.003

Moretti, V. M., Mentasti, T., Bellagamba, F., Luzzana, U., Caprino, F., Turchini, G. M., . . . Valfre, F. (2006). Determination of astaxanthin stereoisomers and colour attributes in flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a tool to distinguish the dietary pigmentation source. Food Addit Contam, 23(11), 1056-1063. doi:10.1080/02652030600838399

Nagayama, T., Sugimoto, M., Ikeda, S., & Kume, S. (2014). Effects of astaxanthin-enriched yeast on mucosal IgA induction in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice. Anim Sci J, 85(4), 449-453. doi:10.1111/asj.12154

Nagendraprabhu, P., & Sudhandiran, G. (2011). Astaxanthin inhibits tumor invasion by decreasing extracellular matrix production and induces apoptosis in experimental rat colon carcinogenesis by modulating the expressions of ERK-2, NFkB and COX-2. Invest New Drugs, 29(2), 207-224. doi:10.1007/s10637-009-9342-5

Naito, Y., Uchiyama, K., Aoi, W., Hasegawa, G., Nakamura, N., Yoshida, N., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2004). Prevention of diabetic nephropathy by treatment with astaxanthin in diabetic db/db mice. Biofactors, 20(1), 49-59.

Naito, Y., Uchiyama, K., Mizushima, K., Kuroda, M., Akagiri, S., Takagi, T., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2006). Microarray profiling of gene expression patterns in glomerular cells of astaxanthin-treated diabetic mice: a nutrigenomic approach. Int J Mol Med, 18(4), 685-695. doi:10.3892/ijmm.18.4.685

Nakajima, Y., Inokuchi, Y., Shimazawa, M., Otsubo, K., Ishibashi, T., & Hara, H. (2008). Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol, 60(10), 1365-1374. doi:10.1211/jpp/60.10.0013

Nakano, M., Onodera, A., Saito, E., Tanabe, M., Yajima, K., Takahashi, J., & Nguyen, V. C. (2008). Effect of astaxanthin in combination with alpha-tocopherol or ascorbic acid against oxidative damage in diabetic ODS rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 54(4), 329-334.

Nakano, M., Orimo, N., Katagiri, N., Tsubata, M., Takahashi, J., & Van Chuyen, N. (2008). Inhibitory effect of astraxanthin combined with Flavangenol on oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 78(4-5), 175-182. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.78.45.175

Nakao, R., Nelson, O. L., Park, J. S., Mathison, B. D., Thompson, P. A., & Chew, B. P. (2010). Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on inflammation and cardiac function in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res, 30(7), 2721-2725.

Nakao, R., Nelson, O. L., Park, J. S., Mathison, B. D., Thompson, P. A., & Chew, B. P. (2010). Effect of dietary astaxanthin at different stages of mammary tumor initiation in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res, 30(6), 2171-2175.

Namekawa, T., Ikeda, S., Sugimoto, M., & Kume, S. (2010). Effects of astaxanthin-containing oil on development and stress-related gene expression of bovine embryos exposed to heat stress. Reprod Domest Anim, 45(6), e387-391. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01584.x

Ni, Y., Nagashimada, M., Zhuge, F., Zhan, L., Nagata, N., Tsutsui, A., . . . Ota, T. (2015). Astaxanthin prevents and reverses diet-induced insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice: A comparison with vitamin E. Scientific Reports, 5, 17192. doi:10.1038/srep17192

Nishioka, Y., Oyagi, A., Tsuruma, K., Shimazawa, M., Ishibashi, T., & Hara, H. (2011). The antianxiety-like effect of astaxanthin extracted from Paracoccus carotinifaciens. Biofactors, 37(1), 25-30. doi:10.1002/biof.130

Ohno, T., Shimizu, M., Shirakami, Y., Miyazaki, T., Ideta, T., Kochi, T., . . . Moriwaki, H. (2016). Preventive effects of astaxanthin on diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumorigenesis in C57/BL/KsJ-db/db obese mice. Hepatol Res, 46(3), E201-209. doi:10.1111/hepr.12550

Otsuka, T., Shimazawa, M., Nakanishi, T., Ohno, Y., Inoue, Y., Tsuruma, K., . . . Hara, H. (2013). Protective effects of a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin, against light-induced retinal damage. J Pharmacol Sci, 123(3), 209-218.

Otton, R., Marin, D. P., Bolin, A. P., de Cassia Santos Macedo, R., Campoio, T. R., Fineto, C., Jr., . . . Mattei, R. (2012). Combined fish oil and astaxanthin supplementation modulates rat lymphocyte function. Eur J Nutr, 51(6), 707-718. doi:10.1007/s00394-011-0250-z

Otton, R., Marin, D. P., Bolin, A. P., Santos Rde, C., Polotow, T. G., Sampaio, S. C., & de Barros, M. P. (2010). Astaxanthin ameliorates the redox imbalance in lymphocytes of experimental diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact, 186(3), 306-315. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.05.011

Page, G. I., & Davies, S. J. (2006). Tissue astaxanthin and canthaxanthin distribution in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol, 143(1), 125-132. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.11.011

Park, C. H., Xu, F. H., Roh, S. S., Song, Y. O., Uebaba, K., Noh, J. S., & Yokozawa, T. (2015). Astaxanthin and Corni Fructus protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and advanced glycation end product in livers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food, 18(3), 337-344. doi:10.1089/jmf.2014.3174

Park, J. S., Mathison, B. D., Hayek, M. G., Massimino, S., Reinhart, G. A., & Chew, B. P. (2011). Astaxanthin stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cats. Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 144(3-4), 455-461. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.08.019

Park, J. S., Mathison, B. D., Hayek, M. G., Zhang, J., Reinhart, G. A., & Chew, B. P. (2013). Astaxanthin modulates age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in healthy dogs. J Anim Sci, 91(1), 268-275. doi:10.2527/jas.2012-5341

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